The shared reading model was developed by Holdaway (1979). It builds from the research that indicates that storybook reading is a critically important factor in young children’s reading development (Wells, 1986). The storybook reading done by parents in a home setting is particularly effective (Strickland & Taylor, 1989). However, in school, in most cases, a teacher reads to a group of children rather than to a single child. The shared reading model allows a group of children to experience many of the benefits that are part of storybook reading done for one or two children at home (Ferreiro & Teberosky, 1982; Schickendanz, 1978).
The shared reading model often uses oversized books (referred to as big books) with enlarged print and illustrations. As the teacher reads the book aloud, all of the children who are being read to can see and appreciate the print and illustrations.
Shared Reading Day One Purpose of Day One is to Introduce Book
-Introduce the book to engage students in the lesson
(For example the children have cards with yes/no or indicate yes or no by putting their thumbs up or down)
The children use pictures (Realia) related to the story.
Talk about the cover. What is the character doing? What do you notice? What predictions do you make based on the cover?
Picture Walk – Start a Discussion of each page with the question, “What do you notice?” Model how to use the pictures to help figure out words.
Comprehension Focus Possibly
What predictions do you make? What predictions can you make about the story?
Maybe talk about Concepts of Print – cover, title, author, characters, how to read left to right, return sweep, this is a place to teach this
1. Teacher reads aloud to the students with full expression. Students listen.
2. Shared Reading – The teacher rereads the text, this time the teacher tracks the text, and invites the students to join in if they are able and share the reading of the story (or certain phrases). If this is an interactive text, the students may predict what will happen as the teacher is turning the page. Or if there is a repetitive text, the students might repeat the text from page to page.
After Reading – What did you notice? Ask a specific question related to the text.
Discussion is always the after on day one.
Read The Meanies by Joy Cowley, ask, “Do you like meanies? Why or Why not?”
What do you think will happen next?
Read If You Give A Mouse A Cookie, ask, “Do you think the mouse will take another cookie?”
Turn to your neighbor, TALK to your neighbor.
Shared Reading Day Two Purpose of Day Two is to Review and Read Story Again
In the shared reading model there are multiple readings of the books over several days. Throughout, children are actively involved in the reading (Yaden, 1988). The teacher may pause in the reading and ask for predictions as to what will happen next. Because many of the books include predictable text, the children often chime in with a word or phrase. Groups of children or individual children might volunteer or be invited to read parts of the story. Through repeated readings and the predictable text, children become familiar with word forms and begin to recognize words and phrases (Bridge, Winograd, & Haley, 1983; Pikulski & Kellner, 1992).
Retelling – What did we read yesterday. Tell your partner sitting next to you. Tell your other partner. Teacher guides how to retell using the pictures from the story. The teacher might review vocabulary words depending on the book chosen.
(maybe Teacher reading some and choral reading some depending on the big book) The teacher and the children read the book chorally.
OR Taking Turns Reading
Different children read different parts of the text.
Part of the class reads part of the book/sentence/page. Then the other part of the class reads the other part. For example, The boys read, “I see a big tree.” The girls read, “I see a big sun.”
OR Guess The Covered Word
The teacher might lead the children through the activity of “Guess The Covered Word” – The whole class reads the text with you or you can assign parts to be read by different children. Stop after each page. Take suggestions for the covered word. Uncover the beginning sound (f) or (SH). Take additional suggestions if needed. Reveal the covered word, then reread the page.
After Reading Should to linked to the before and the during and the after.
What might happen?
Highlight words and read – find words that are highlighted in the text and reread them (highlighter tape is expensive, but cutting up report covers is not)
Complete a sentence starter or fill in a sentence.
Shared Reading Retelling on Day Three using sentence strips or pictures in the story or items in the book to retell the story
Teacher and students reread the text.
Students can share a page or other related activity from the previous day.
Teacher has text prepared on sentence strips or on index cards.
The strips are distributed to the students. The children use the master copy to reconstruct the text in a pocket chart or by lining up the strips on a bulletin board appropriately
The teacher practices removing individual lines and students identify what has been removed.
Students can complete this similar activity at the literacy center (cut out, rearrange and glue strips in the correct order). The master copy is always available for reference purposes.
Retelling – show cover as a catalyst for retelling the story (weaker then after lesson) The teacher asks the students, “What happened in the beginning of the story?” What happened in the middle of the story?” “What happened at the end of the story?” Don’t panic if they don’t know since this will be the focus of the lesson today.
Echo Reading – Read a line and left the children by your echo, repeating the line after you.
Set the purpose: Have the children listen to see what happens in the story (beginning, middle, end).
Discussion and Writing
Teacher should ask, “What happened at the beginning of the story?” Record answers on the chart paper under where you wrote, Beginning or have the label, “Beginning.” Teacher should ask, “What happened in the middle of the story?” Record answers on the chart paper under where you wrote, Middle or have the label, “Middle.” Teacher should ask, “What happened at the end of the story?” Record answers on the chart paper under where you wrote, End or have the label, “End.”
Place the sentence strips in order to retell the story in order showing the sequence or the story or beginning, middle, or end.
Pass out the pictures or items(objects) from the story and have the students put themselves in order to retell the story in order showing beginning, middle, end.
Pass out the sentence strips and have the students put themselves in order to retell the story in order showing the beginning, middle, end.
MANY more ideas for Shared Reading
The Student will develop phonemic awareness skills by:
__ identifying, segmenting, and counting syllables (beats, or claps) in spoken words
__ identifying, and isolating initial and final sounds spoken in words
__ identifying spoken words and words that rhyme
__ segmenting one-syllable words into initial, medial, and final sounds and recombining sounds into words
The Student will develop skills in phonic word study by:
__ naming upper and lower case letters in random order
__ recognizing single consonant letter sounds
__ identifying and reading high frequency words (is the can see like go at to)
The Student will develop comprehension/strategies by:
__ identifying words using meaning (picture clues, context, prior knowledge), and syntax (grammar & language)
__ retelling and sequencing the major events of a story
__ demonstrating knowledge of story elements (who, what, where, when why)
__ predicting story outcomes in events
__ identifying beginning, middle, end of a story
__ identifying the main idea of a passage
__ responding to written materials by relating to prior knowledge
__ demonstrating left to right directionality
__ utilizing directional behaviors (where to start, return sweep, word by word matching)